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This document is produced in accordance with the requirement under Section 161, Schedule 19 of the Finance Act 2016 for all U.K. entities to publish their U.K. tax strategy online and sets out this group's approach to tax.

The Group's approach to risk management and governance is to ensure tax objectives and principles are carried out in an efficient manner with effective controls. The components of the Group's tax control environment include: tax policies and procedures, risk identification and assessment, and communication.

The Parent and its subsidiaries are subject to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which requires internal controls over financial accounting arrangements, including tax.


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